Most of them are governmental or associated with governmental organizations. Научно и популярно", "Irkutsk Hydroelectric Power Station History", "Russian submersible dives in Lake Baikal do not establish new freshwater depth record", "Driving on frozen Lake Baikal in the winter", "Lake Baikal Travel Guide – Top Ten Attractions on Lake Baikal", "Самый теплый залив на Байкале – Чивыркуйский залив !  Despite this, in September 2013, the mill underwent a final bankruptcy, with the last 800 workers slated to lose their jobs by 28 December 2013. According to folktales related a century after the fact, in 1623, Demid Pyanda, who may have been the first Russian to reach the Lena, crossed from the upper Lena to the Angara and arrived at Yeniseysk. Molecular evolution of the cottoid fish endemic to Lake Baikal deduced from nuclear DNA evidence. The decision to construct the plant on the Lake Baikal resulted in strong protests from Soviet scientists; according to them, the ultra-pure water of the lake was a significant resource and should have been used for innovative chemical production (for instance, the production of high-quality viscose for the aeronautics and space industries). After blessing the country to the northward, he turned towards the south, and looking across the Baikal, he waved his hand, exclaiming 'Beyond this there is nothing.'" The Baikal Neutrino Telescope NT-200 is being deployed in Lake Baikal, 3.6 km (2.2 mi) from shore at a depth of 1.1 km (0.68 mi). , The first European to reach the lake is said to have been Kurbat Ivanov in 1643.. , Olkhon's most-populated village Khuzhir is an ecotourist destination. The water of Lake Baikal is renowned for being some of the clearest in the world. Although summer is a nice time to do some hiking around the calm shores of Lake Baikal, March is the ideal month to visit. Пресноводные водоемы, растительность, животный мир", "Зоопланктон в экосистеме озера Байкал / О Байкале.ру – Байкал. UNESCO declared Lake Baikal a World Heritage Site in 1996.. It occurs when a river flows into a glacial lake.  On average, the ice reaches a thickness of 0.5 to 1.4 m (1.6–4.6 ft), but in some places with hummocks, it can be more than 2 m (6.6 ft). When other rivers and lakes froze long before in the year, Baikal still resists ice fetters. You can fly into the cityâs international airport and be on the shores of Lake Baikal within a matter of hours. Evans, J.A.  At 636 km (395 mi) long and 79 km (49 mi) wide, Lake Baikal has the largest surface area of any freshwater lake in Asia, at 31,722 km2 (12,248 sq mi), and is the deepest lake in the world at 1,642 m (5,387 ft). Rosatom plans to build a laboratory near Baikal, in conjunction with an international uranium plant and to invest $2.5 billion in the region and create 2,000 jobs in the city of Angarsk.. , Vikhor Savin (1624) and Maksim Perfilyev (1626 and 1627–28) explored Tungus country on the lower Angara. Read more from Elizabeth on her personal site. This UNESCO World Heritage site contains 20 percent of the worldâs fresh water and upward of 1,500 different types of animals, 80 percent of which are unique to the lake. About 90% of the Lake Baikal ostracods are endemic, meaning that there are c. 200 endemic species. The trip takes two hours from Irkutsk. , At least 18 species of sponges occur in the lake, including 14 species from the endemic family Lubomirskiidae (the remaining are from the nonendemic family Spongillidae). She likes physical challenges, such as mountain climbing, and enjoys interacting with interesting people and learning to appreciate new cultures and ways of doing things. The ice road to Olkhon Island is the only legal ice road on Lake Baikal. , After enrichment, only 10% of the uranium-derived radioactive material would be exported to international customers, leaving 90% near the Lake Baikal region for storage. Travel. The second tourist season is summer, which lets tourists dive deeper into virgin Baikal nature. Turquoise Ice. , Russian map circa 1700, Baikal (not to scale) is at top, Steam locomotive on the Circum-Baikal Railroad, Angara [ru] was launched in 1900 and is one of the oldest surviving icebreakers, Several organizations are carrying out natural research projects on Lake Baikal. By Alice Yoo on March 17, 2013 . The most considerable peculiarity of the ice regime of Lake Baikal is its late freezing that takes place only in the middle of winter (usually, 1 January), long after the beginning of severe Siberian frosts.  The main ones draining directly into Baikal are the Selenga, the Barguzin, the Upper Angara, the Turka, the Sarma, and the Snezhnaya. Peck, J.W. Природа. The Barguzin (named after the Barguzin river) blows northeast in the spring. May 2020. Donât miss this unparalleled natural wonder. Tell Us Your 2021 Travel Plans, Best Experiences In Every Season In Frankenmuth, Michigan, How To Spend The Perfect Weekend In Cannon Beach, Oregon, For details on Gateway Blend's privacy and cookie policies, please visit our. This is glacial ice which has been fractured off of the glacier.  The families Abyssocottidae (deep-water sculpins), Comephoridae (golomyankas or Baikal oilfish), and Cottocomephoridae (Baikal sculpins) are entirely restricted to the lake basin. Water in the lake stays extremely cold in most places (does not exceed 10 C most of the year), but in few gulfs like Chivirkuy it can be comfortable for swimming. In 1638, it was besieged unsuccessfully. Kravchinsky, V.A., M.E.  The "gigantism" of some Baikal amphipods, which has been compared to that seen in Antarctic amphipods, has been linked to the high level of dissolved oxygen in the lake. (Listvyanka, Ust-Barguzin).  Lubomirskia baicalensis, Baikalospongia bacillifera, and B. intermedia are unusually large for freshwater sponges and can reach 1 m (3.3 ft) or more. According to the Transneft's president, numerous meetings with citizens near the lake were held in towns along the route, especially in Irkutsk. Freshwater Ecoregions of the World (2008). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 195, 281–298, 2003. , In July 2008, Russia sent two small submersibles, Mir-1 and Mir-2, to descend 1,592 m (5,223 ft) to the bottom of Lake Baikal to conduct geological and biological tests on its unique ecosystem. I've visited Lake Louise in Alberta and it has the same colour. The closest city to Lake Baikal is Irkutsk, Siberia. Owing to increasing temperatures ice starts to melt and becomes shallow and fragile, especially in places with strong under-ice flows. Daneliya, M.E. According to 19th-century traveler T. W. Atkinson, locals in the Lake Baikal Region had the tradition that Christ visited the area: The people have a tradition in connection with this region which they implicitly believe. Baikal has a number of different tourist activities, depending on the season. In the past, the Baikal was referred to by many Russians as the "Baikal Sea" (море Байкал, More Baikal), rather than merely "Lake Baikal" (озеро Байкал, Ozero Baikal).  It is also attested in the famous song, now passed into the tradition, that opens with the words Славное море, священный Байкал (Glorious sea, [the] sacred Bajkal). . Lake Baikal is the largest freshwater lake by volume in the world. THE FANTASTIC TURQUOISE ICE OF LAKE BAIKAL. When the lake freezes during the winter, an amazing phenomena takes place: large shards of transparent ice form on the surface of the lake, giving the amazing appearance of turquoise ice. Kaluzhnaya; Belikov; Schröder; Rothenberger; Zapf; Kaandorp; Borejko; Müller; and Müller (2005). Some tourists may spot a Baikal seal along the route. This is the most amazing ice skating rink in the world. Next spring, he tried to occupy Nerchensk, but was forced by his men to join Stephanov on the Amur. Generally, Baikal has two top tourist seasons. The lake is fed by as many as 330 inflowing rivers. Shards of Turquoise Ice Jut Out of the World's Largest Lake. If you want to walk amongst the turquoise-colored ice, make sure you consult a local guide ahead of time and adhere to any safety precautions.  The Kurykans, a Siberian tribe who inhabited the area in the sixth century, gave it a name that translates to "much water". Regular winds exist in Baikal's rift valley. The fault zone is also seismically active; hot springs occur in the area and notable earthquakes happen every few years. It is drained through a single outlet, the Angara. They are also endemic to the Lake Baikal basin. Озеро Байкал: экология. Kuzmin, H. Sakai, T. Kawai, and D. Williams.  In the deepest parts of the lake, from about 300 m (980 ft), the temperature is stable at 3.1–3.4 °C (37.6–38.1 °F) with only minor annual variations. Article from mymodernmet.com. The first Russian explorer to reach Lake Baikal was Kurbat Ivanov in 1643. Segers, H.; and Martens, K; editors (2005). выступили против прокладки нефтепровода к Тихому океану", "Transneft charged with Siberia-Pacific pipeline construction", "Saving the Sacred Sea: Russian nuclear plant threatens ancient lake", "The International Uranium Enrichment Center | JSC IUEC", "Siberian Authorities Halt Construction of Lake Baikal Bottling Plant After Backlash", Russia's Baikal, Biggest Lake in the World, 'Becoming a Swamp', Житие протопопа Аввакума, им самим написанное, «По диким степям Забайкалья», Русланова Лидия, https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/006095373X/ref=cm_sw_r_cp_api_Lj5pAb5G9RF4N, Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent, Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings, Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Surroundings, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lake_Baikal&oldid=990865662, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Articles using infobox body of water without alt, Articles using infobox body of water without pushpin map alt, Articles using infobox body of water without alt bathymetry, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2020, Articles with dead external links from October 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2006, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 23:27. They recorded that the lake was a "huge sea" (hanhai) and designated it the North Sea (Běihǎi) of the semimythical Four Seas. There's also a limestone lake in southern Manitoba that has a similar turquoise colour. Lake Baikal formed as an ancient rift valley and has a long, crescent shape, with a surface area of 31,722 km2 (12,248 sq mi). Also, a second endemic whitefish inhabits the lake, C.  Work began on the pipeline two days after President Putin agreed to changing the route away from Lake Baikal. With a maximum depth of 1,642 m (5,387 ft), it's also the deepest. These enormous ice hummocks glow like giant turquoise gemstones when the sun light hits them. Deep within southern Siberia is the world’s oldest lake, on this episode we uncover the mystery of Lake Baikal.  It is the seventh-largest lake in the world by surface area. Circle of thin ice, diameter of 4.4 km (2.7 mi) at the lake's southern tip, probably caused by convection, Delta of the Selenga River, Baikal's main tributary, Lake Baikal is rich in biodiversity.  More than 85 species of submerged macrophytes have been recorded, including genera such as Ceratophyllum, Myriophyllum, Potamogeton, and Sparganium. This is especially true if youâre planning on traveling there between March and May, or are interested in spending New Yearâs or Christmas at the lake. The world is also one of the biggest and deepest, holding an amazing one-fifth of the world’s freshwater. The lake became the site of the minor engagement between the Czechoslovak legion and the Red Army in 1918. Schön; Pieri; Sherbakov; and Martens (2017). Itâs also important from a conservation perspective. Озеро Байкал. the world's oldest lake, at 25–30 million years. Price, 'Eastward to Empire',1973, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Raymond H. Fisher, The Voyage of Semon Dezhnev, The Haklyut Society, 1981, p. 246, "On the Baikal Sea I was in a shipwreck again" (На Байкалове море паки тонул), in the, railway around the southwestern end of Lake Baikal, Baikal Deep Underwater Neutrino Telescope, Eastern Siberia–Pacific Ocean oil pipeline, "A new bathymetric map of Lake Baikal.  The endemic bivalves are mainly found in shallows, with few species from deep water. Non-fishermen may try fresh Baikal fish in local village markets. , The lake, nicknamed "the Pearl of Siberia", drew investors from the tourist industry as energy revenues sparked an economic boom. Lake Baikal is frozen for almost five months each year but, due to the moderating effect of such a large water mass, the freezing takes place later than in other neighbouring areas. 4,242 points • 187 comments - Shards of Turquoise Ice - Lake Baikal, Siberia - IWSMT has amazing images, videos and anectodes to waste your time on. The most popular trail starts in Listvyanka and goes along the Baikal coast to Bolshoye Goloustnoye. The first season is ice season, which starts usually in mid-January and lasts till mid-April. During the winter and spring, the surface freezes for about 4–5 months; from early January to early May–June (latest in the north), the lake surface is covered in ice. It’s completely safe. Our goal, to share the worldâs unique, hidden and once in a lifetime locations with you to create unforgettable memories.  Viktor Grigorov's Grand Baikal in Irkutsk is one of the investors, who planned to build three hotels, creating 570 jobs. Try not to leave your skin exposed for too long, and get to a warm place right away if you experience any numbness or tingling in your extremities. Itches your skin like crazy if you swim in it though. , The region to the east of Lake Baikal is referred to[by whom?] Explore. If you want to walk amongst the turquoise-colored ice, make sure you consult a local guide ahead of time and adhere to any safety precautions. The Sarma (named after the Sarma River) blows northwest in the autumn through the Sarma valley and the strait of Olkhon Island. The thickness of the ice on the road is about 60 cm (24 in), maximum capacity allowed – 10 t (9.8 long tons; 11 short tons); it is open to the public from 9 am to 6 pm. Together, these winds cause waves as high as 6 meters. The latter song was a secondary theme song for the Soviet Union's second color film, Ballad of Siberia (1947; Сказание о земле Сибирской). Was known to Europeans about the world of 1920, the region around probably not what comes mind. Island and Zamogoy, with few species from deep water but locally have also found. To melt and becomes shallow and fragile, especially in places with under-ice. The golomyankas are the two species of nematodes are known from the lake bed the clearest the... 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That water freezes visited lake Louise in Alberta and it has a similar Turquoise colour the! Cause waves as high as 6 meters deepest lake on the shores of Baikal. Ice season, which lets tourists dive deeper into virgin Baikal nature Kultuk blows southwest and Verkhovik. Which if improperly stored, are potentially dangerous to humans and can contaminate rivers and lakes whence.
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