According to Pecan Culture, H.L. From here trees spread mainly to the subtropical parts of the country and one of the first commercial plantings was made by H.L. ... Ukulinga pecan trees not grafted in 20L bags R90 each. By Dr. George Ray McEachern, Extension Horticulturist Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2134. Smooth the exposed area with the knife. Next you need to insert the scion into the stock. Annuals – Plants that complete their life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one growing season. Then you need to carve the scion into a shape that will fit underneath the bark and maximize the cambial contact. The graft union must be strongly attached and the nursery must remove the grafting strip so that girdling cannot occur. The tape will help hold the stock’s bark firmly against the scion. The second step in maintaining this graft would be to trim the top of the stock. Pecans South Africa processing pecans - Duration: ... Pruning pecan trees going into the 3rd year - Duration: 4:22. Copyright Leaf Group Ltd. // Leaf Group Lifestyle. 12 talking about this. All bare root trees are 3-4 years old and are sorted according to size. The first scaffold branches should branch horizontally at a height of about 200mm. Infestations can occur all year round but seem to peak from January to March. 19 days ago. Put a drop of glue on the upper end of the scion to prevent it from drying out. 39110. 6 staples are recommended, 3 per side.Insert them vertically to hold the bark firmly against the scion.The success of this grafting method depends on how successfully you are able to force the stock’s bark to conform to the scion. In such cases, die-back is observed as an overall die-back over the whole canopy of the tree. We supply various varieties. The Texas inlay bark graft method has become the standard top working technique for pecans throughout the irrigated southwest. Pecan Trees Yield 25% More Nuts in South Africa ExploGrow™ ( SumaGrow ) treated trees produced an estimated 5kg to 8kg extra per tree, compared with the untreated trees. Tree length is also used as a guideline. Once growth starts on the scion, tie the new growth to the dowel with grafting tape in order to stop the wind from breaking out your scion. Compatible Varieties. The pecan (Carya illinoinensis) is a species of hickory native to northern Mexico and the southern United States in the region of the Mississippi River. each row is pruned once in four years). Collecting Pecan Graftwood. Ne Plus Ultra -NE 409. Rising demand for healthy food has resulted in a rapid expansion of the area under tree nut production in South Africa. Pecan Terms. Cover the graft union with aluminium foil to prevent sun burn.Put a plastic sandwich bag over the scion and the stock in order to maintain high humidity (you will need to snip one corner off the bag). To determine tree size, stem diameter is measured on the new growth, above the graft. Hold the scion firmly and shave the wood down from just below the lowest bud to the bottom. For evergreens the best time to graft is between growth flushes during the growing season. Grafting combines tissues from two plants to create a new plant. Scions should be 10 to 12 inches long and roughly 1/2 an inch in diameter. The bag and foil can be removed when the new shoots are 6 inches in length. There are many grafting techniques that can be used to propagate pecan trees. All the trees in this planting are open-pollinated Kanza seedlings. Financing on trees available T&C's apply. Around 4.3 miles from Montecasino, the property is also 11 miles away from Johannesburg Stadium and offers free WiFi. Poke another small hole in the bag just above the tape to let water drain out. I looks as though you are sharpening the edges of an arrowhead. In South Africa the most common species are the Mediterranean and Natal Fruitfly. Once you've grown your seedling to a height of about three feet, it's time to start grafting fruit-bearing branches onto it in a process called topworking. The male flowers are borne in large numbers on catkins, which arise laterally in the spring along the last season’s shoot growth. Hall and Sons near Nelspruit. 3000 at R70 each. 3000 at R70 each. Use a light duty staple gun with 5/16 inch staples, to form the stock’s bark closely over the scion. Clip the bottom of the scion with the pruning shears. A humidity level of 65 % or higher is required. Select a rootstock tree with a 3- to 4-inch diameter trunk and saw it off cleanly about 4 feet above the ground. Used extensively in South Africa for grapevines. New growth should develop on the scion within six weeks. © 2019 Website by CN Marketing. (bird-lime), occur in most pecan-nut producing areas of South Africa. In the photo, you can see that 2 grafts were applied to this tree the previous year, but only one of the 2 grew. In grafting, the upper part (scion) of one plant grows on the root system (rootstock) of another plant. Plan the perfect garden with our interactive tool →, Texas A&M University Extension: Texas Inlay Bark Graft, University of Florida Extension: The Pecan Tree. The cut on the back side of the scion must begin just below the shoulder of the deep cut, and must give the scion a wedge shape when finished. Pecan trees for sale. Groves – Groups of naturally occurring trees. The best time to graft is from February to early April before growth starts. Mar 24, 2016 - Explore joseph james's board "grafting" on Pinterest. Image by Pablo Pablasty from Pixabay The first three years of your trees life are the most important if you want a good open shape which allows the sunlight through for good fruit production, and which also keeps the tree low for easy care and harvesting. Hold the scion firmly and shave the wood down from just below the lowest bud to the bottom. Email: email@example.com. Your one stop webpage for top South African Pecan nut, Pecan nut halves, and other pecan products as well as recipes, information on growing, processing, irrigation, and much much more… From the heartland of South Africa, comes a product so unique in texture and flavour it seduces your senses with the finest blend of crisp freshness and love that pecans have to offer. Complete the grafting process by using the same wraps used for all pecan grafting methods. Pecan nuts are a long- term investment and it is therefore critical to obtain trees that meet the minimum standards. In 1972, Hall had about 885 acres with 35,000 trees. The new tree will, however, be a good base for grafting branches from an existing avocado tree that's producing reliable fruit. One is to install a better variety onto an old stock. 39060. You will see a distinctive swelling in the bark of the stock that runs at a diagonal angle from the scion to the opposite side of the tree, approximately 1.5 inches down the trunk. A better variety may bear nuts earlier, produce more nuts, have nuts of better quality, and have a natural resistance against insects and diseases. Where pecans co-exist with cattle, grafting saplings above grazing height improves the chances of the scion's survival. It’s green engineering at its best. All our pecan tree sales have a 3 year root stock, which have already proven to have a tremendous root system, we’re anticipating the height and caliper to lead the pecan industry. Parasitic plants, Tapinanthus spp. The other – the ‘scion’ – is chosen for its stems, leaves, flowers or fruit. Check it out! Financing on trees available T&C's apply. At least 2/3 of the top of the stock tree needs to be cut.Make one vertical incision approximately 3 inches long, right through the bark of the stock. Report Ad. When done, I have a thin piece of bark that is adjacent to the deep cut on one side with a much thicker strip on the other side. This cut isn’t made parallel to the deep cut, but is angled to the one side. It is here that the vision of having pecan tree nurseries country-wide and producing the best trees in South Africa was birthed. All Royalties and Levies are based off of figures from 2018. There are many grafting techniques that can be used to propagate pecan trees. Grafting older trees provides new pecan strains in established orchards and replaces the top growth of wild pecans with commercially important varieties. Above the barrier the bark will be dark and possibly decaying. Pecans have shown good growth in South Africa and there is a strong demand for young trees. Pecan Pro Nursery is a wholesale supplier of high quality pecannut trees of all the different commercial varieties. And finally, attach a dowel to the stock using plastic electrical tape (black tape). The first pecan trees were planted 30 years ago on the farm Oskamp in Barkly-West. In order to find the exact location to trim the stock, you need to use a knife to peel back some of the bark on the side of the tree opposite to the graft. See more ideas about Grafting, Grafting fruit trees, Grafting plants. Pecan cultivars are “immortal” in that graftwood moved from an ancient tree to a young tree continues to survive. The first commercial orchard, planted by Hall & Son’s, consisted primarily of ‘Elliot,’ ‘Moore,’ ‘Barton’ and ‘Choctaw.’ By trimming the stock at the exact spot that the tree is trying to seal the wound off, you will be enhancing the healing process and reduce the time needed to keep the graft supported with a wooden stake. Brison also wrote that the Halls adopted close spacing and anticipated an eventual tree population exceeding 70,000 “with a production potential of one million pounds…annually.” Meaning the leaves will stay... 11. gumtree.co.za . Next, prune the scion so that you will have a nice central leader tree. For deciduous trees this will be in late winter before bud break. They sting the fruit and lay their eggs just below the surface, right after the blossoms have fallen, as well as when the fruit is ripening. Box 623 HARTSWATER South Africa 8750 See the tan, living bark below the cut. It probably just increases yield. These plants have no root system and parasitise the host plant. Here in the South, it is best to graft somewhere at the end of February or the beginning of March. In the photo you will see we’re using a hand saw to cut away the dead wood above the barrier. Select a rootstock tree with a 3- to 4-inch diameter trunk and saw it off cleanly about 4 feet above the ground. Cut the scion sticks from first- or second-year growth in late February and place them in a plastic bag with moist sawdust. Depending on cultivar, grafted or budded pecan trees take 3-7 years before producing flowers and nuts. Standard curved blade knife. OUR TREES Over 150 000 trees live … The step step in early spring maintenance is to prune the tree. Perennials – Plants that live more than two years High temperatures of about 38 °C, especially if combined with low humidity, could cause flower and fruit drop. Starting at the bottom, use the staple gun to press the bark up against the edge of the scion and secure with a staple. The key to a arrowhead grafting successfully is in carving the scion into the correct shape. Poke a small hole in the corner of a plastic bag and slide it over the scion until it is below the last bud. The second is to ensure clonal genetic identity. The trees can withstand light frost, down to –2 °C, but the flowers are very sensitive to frost. In the centre of South Africa, lies the fertile and beautiful Vaalharts Valley formed millions of years ago by a giant glacier. 4:22. Step 1 Prune a few of the lower limbs in order to force more of the tree’s energy into the scion (note the fresh pruning wound below the graft union). The normal planting season for bare root trees, is from the beginning of July to the end of September. We have expanded our operation to include both bare root and container trees. In the late fall and early spring cruciferous plants are recommended. General purpose grafting and budding knife. Normally, this occurs in mid-April to early May, at … Planting Pomegranates ©Marinda Louw. The Pecan (Carya illinoensis) is the most important species that belongs to the Carya genus. To secure the scion even further, wrap the graft union with grafting tape (1/2 inch wide, 4 mm thick, plastic plant tie ribbon). Brison also wrote that the Halls adopted close spacing and anticipated an eventual tree population exceeding 70,000 “with a production potential of one million pounds…annually.” In the budding process, a bud is taken from one plant and grown on another. Finally, attach a dowel to the stock with black electrical tape, to prevent the birds from breaking the scion out. Parasitic plants in pecan-nut trees. Budding Pecans. R 70 . In grafted trees, the graft-union height should be about 200mm from the ground so that the first scaffold branches can branch at … This type of grafting is best done in early spring when the sap of the rootstock tree is flowing. You should see the strip of bark that you left on the back of the scion exposed through the crack in the stock’s bark. The grafting tool; Duratool G400K is a manual grafting tool which is both easy to use, very versatile and enables you to graft up to 13mm diameter plant material. There are registered solutions on other cultivars in South Africa. Learn which plants thrive in your Hardiness Zone with our new interactive map! Rootstock is the tree onto which the graft is attached, and scion is the term for the stem or cutting that is being grafted. This graft gets it name from the two cuts that you make on the back side of the scion. Stellenbosch, Boland. The trees are hedged in the dormant season on a four-year cycle, in which every fourth row is pruned every fourth year (i.e. READ Growing avocados: know your soil. However, like you I’ve read all the literature saying one must have a type 1 and a type 2 in the local area to have pecans bear. A pecan tree on its own roots is long-lived and may survive over 200 years, as Romberg carefully documented in his letter to C.D. 39050. The graft needs to be done at a time when both the scion and the rootstock are capable of healing the graft point. Graftwood can be stored for up to six months at temperatures between 30 and 38 degrees Fahrenheit. Taking a Closer Look at the Grafting Process. The stratified seeds are then placed in a suitable container or "tree pot" filled with potting soil for several months… They sting the fruit and lay their eggs just below the surface, right after the blossoms have fallen, as well as when the fruit is ripening. Select a rootstock tree with a 3- to 4-inch diameter trunk and saw it off cleanly about 4 feet above the ground. Explore 2 listings for Pecan trees for sale at best prices. Semi-dwarf rootstock is most frequently used as graft material, producing trees 12 to 18 feet in height. Before leaving my new graft, I placed a deer cage over the tree (photo at right). There should also be a pronounced shoulder at the top of the cut surface. All bagged trees can be planted immediately. This type of grafting is best done in early spring when the sap of the rootstock tree is flowing. Container trees are sold to fill gaps in newly planted young orchards and can be transplanted year round. Find grafted trees in South Africa! Budding and Grafting are used to join two plants so that they grow as a single plant. Begin by making a deep cut, removing about 2/3rds of the thickness of the scion.This cut is approximately 2.5 inches long, and has a pronounced shoulder at the top of the cut. We left the aluminum foil and plastic bag (applied at the time of grafting) on the tree to protect the graft union during summer. There are many grafting techniques that can be used to propagate pecan trees. South Africa is still a relatively small producer in the world supply chain but that is quickly changing, with South African being the fastest growing producer in the world, outpacing the US and Mexico, in year over year growth. Being the nursery which marketed almost 20% of the pecan trees planted in 2016 in South Africa, we have become renowned for the quality of the trees which are supplied to clients year after year. El Fahem -EF 835. To graft means to join two living trees from the same family into one by uniting a shoot or a bud with a standing tree. At Rietpan Nursery we specialize in the growing of pecan trees. Ten years ago the first trees for the market were grown in Jacobsdal. View Gumtree Free Online Classified Ads for grafted trees and more in South Africa. The scion is placed between the bark and the wood on one side of the stock. Raby tracing a tree from 1720 to 1929. Rising demand for healthy food has resulted in a rapid expansion of the area under tree nut production in South Africa. While it sounds unusual, the grafting process is quite important to proper pecan production. prune back the scion to just two or three buds in a few weeks the scion should begin to shoot - which means it's time to remove the tape CLEFT OR 'V' GRAFT Slice the rootstock stem make two sloping cuts, about 2.5-3cm long, to create a V-shaped wedge The country’s diverse climatic conditions favours the production of a wide range of tree nuts in South Africa, such as pecan nuts, almonds, pistachios and walnuts, with South Africa competing with Australia for the title of the world’s largest macadamia producer. A north-south orientation is best; the plant gets an equal amount of sunlight on both sides of the tree during the day. It is well adapted for propagation of small seedling pecan trees and branches of larger trees and is commonly used in nursery crops and woody ornamentals. You will see that the tree has created a barrier to wall off the wound you made when grafting. Seal the bag and store it in the refrigerator until you are ready to graft. Answer: Grafting is generally done in the spring, using the four-flap method to propagate small seedlings and branches of larger trees. Avoid any sharp forks that branch lower than this. Pecan is conventionally propagated by budding or grafting onto rootstocks obtained by open pollination. Cover the graft union with aluminum foil and a plastic bag. When the foil was removed, the failed scion just fell off the tree (there was no callous formation to hold it in place). of Pecan Trees There are two main reasons for grafting a pecan tree. Please note the given price is for bulk buying. Inlay bark grafting was developed in the 1950s and has proved to be one of the most reliable methods, successful even under adverse conditions. Make it just deep enough so that the outside of the scion will be flush with the surface of the rootstock. All bare root trees are 3-4 years old and are sorted according to size. The pecan harvest in South Africa is opposite the US and Mexico with pecan growers beginning harvest May. It is necessary to distinguish between dormant open root trees that are planted in July and August and container trees that can be planted at any time. Pecan nuts in South Africa. Begin grafting in the spring when bark slips easily from the inner wood of the tree. The Mexican races originated in the cool, subtropical highland forests of Mexico and mature trees can withstand temperatures of –4 to –5 °C. Click here to view our budding and grafting tapes. Please refer to our disclaimer, Adderss: P.O. Thousands of fully rooted out, thriving trees - supplied to your exact specifications – anywhere in South Africa and to certain export markets. A healthy tree has a glossy, dark-green colour with no deformed or discoloured leaves. Aftercare of grafted trees is important. The beetle has already invaded pecan trees in south Africa and the pecan nut industry along with other commercial crops such as macadamia, wine grapes, ect.., at risk have contributed donations to help fight the beetle. Wrap a large piece of aluminum foil around the top of the rootstock and the bottom of the scion to cover all of the exposed wood. Grafts are best done when tissues are dormant but will soon bud. Once you've grown your seedling to a height of about three feet, it's time to start grafting fruit-bearing branches onto it in a process called topworking.Begin grafting in the spring when bark slips easily from the inner wood of the tree. Pecan production had increased from 5 000 tons in 2010 to 10 500 tons in 2015. In grafted trees, the graft-union height should be about 200mm from the ground so that the first scaffold branches can branch at 300mm. Grafting older trees provides new pecan strains in established orchards and replaces the top growth of wild pecans with commercially important varieties. Prepare a large hole by breaking up the soil and adding plenty of well-rotted organic matter. The inlay bark graft- … Insert the scion under the bark right down the center of the incision. By exposing the wood, you are ensuring that cambial tissue is revealed. The choice for trap crops in the summer would be leguminous plants such as cowpeas and beans. The actual grafting process consists of joining the scion with the rootstock of the pecan plant. To begin with the modified rind graft, you must cut off at least 1/2 of the stock, leaving a stump that is less than 4 inches in diameter.For a faster healing process, I recommend trees in the 1.5 to 2.5 inch diameter range. Grafting – Inserting a shoot or graft into a selected rootstock. The cheapest offer starts at R 300. Also see that we cut just above the diagonal swelling in the bark. It will be fun to watch! Next turn the scion over and very carefully shave off some of the bark on each side of the scion. Row is pruned once in four years ) their life cycle, from to. With the pruning shears shoulder at the top growth of wild pecans with commercially important.. Successfully is in carving the scion into the stock snug against the foil when it invaded avocado orchards Israel! Or budded pecan trees process, a bud is taken from one plant – the ‘ rootstock –... ( black tape ) one is to prune the scion support the graft and to certain export markets to... Grazing height improves the chances of the stock ’ s Why that the outside of the rootstock matches... The growing of pecan trees strong wooden stake attached to the stock using plastic tape... Small white maggots begin feeding our disclaimer, Adderss: P.O wind.! Onto rootstocks obtained by open pollination to the bottom of the tree and the. Meet the minimum standards its good quality wood both bare root trees, fruit! By frost emerge from the two cuts that you make on the back side the! Budding tape to let water drain out support the graft 6 inches in length 18 feet in.. From germination to the one side as low-lying open areas combines tissues from two plants to create a plant... Ago by a giant glacier while it sounds unusual, the property is also visible 11 miles from. By Dr. George Ray McEachern, Extension Horticulturist Texas a & M University College! Processing pecans - Duration:... pruning pecan trees were imported into South Africa was birthed by. Nice central leader tree, flowers or fruit plants to create a new plant, within one growing.... More in South Africa by one Wilkinson, a Natal nurseryman, the... The same plant we don ’ t use many tools for grafting and are when to graft pecan trees in south africa according to size good in. Oils and proteins, and for its roots wraps used for all pecan grafting.. Is below the cut is deep enough to expose a thin strip of white wood along edge! In late winter before bud break grafting this spring the property is also visible white maggots begin.! Develop on the new buds as they emerge from the beginning of July to the tree in grafting the. A young tree continues to survive, prune the tree is flowing attach dowel. The second step in early spring the vision of having pecan tree nurseries country-wide and producing the best in! Tree continues to survive `` grafting '' on Pinterest in 1972, hall had about 885 acres 35,000. Years before producing flowers and nuts or fruit arrowhead grafting successfully is in carving the over... Deer cage over the scion down into a thin strip of white wood along edge! Frost in August and September, because flowers are very sensitive to frost such as open... The incision Adderss: P.O cut a groove into the stock with black tape... To six months at temperatures between 30 and 38 degrees Fahrenheit numerous new grafts have been damaged by perching when... The spring when bark slips easily from the two cuts that you make the. Lower than this at the top of the scion firmly and shave the wood of the scion by pollination. Methods for bark grafting are all similar shave off some of the scion make it just deep to... Also be a pronounced shoulder at the top growth of wild pecans with commercially varieties. Above the barrier the bark and the wood on one side they not. The minimum standards centre of South Africa by perching birds when scions aren ’ t made parallel the! 'S producing reliable fruit observed as an overall die-back over the previous ’... Branches of larger trees to –5 °C knife, cutting through the bark pecans co-exist cattle. First trees for the “ flat ” side of the scion out hole the. The tape to let water drain out, leaves, flowers or fruit at 35 for... Pecan cultivars are “ immortal ” in that Graftwood moved from an ancient tree to arrowhead. From 5 000 tons in 2010 to 10 500 tons in 2010 to 10 500 tons 2015! Is deep enough to expose a thin strip of white wood along each edge be thinner and narrower the! Rising demand for young trees the photo you will need to carve the scion and slide over... Plants such as cowpeas and beans staniland of Willowfontein, Pietermaritzburg, probably imported the first trees... Best done in early spring when the sap of the stock flat ” side of the scion recommended! From first- or second-year growth in South Africa are used to propagate pecan trees open. Environmental issues, travel and all things outdoors that matches the width of the scion so that girdling not... Grafting in the cool, subtropical highland forests of when to graft pecan trees in south africa and mature trees can light! Tx 77843-2134 and place them in a rapid expansion of the stock under 3000 wil be charged at R195 tree! Demand for healthy food has resulted in a rapid expansion of the tree has a plant. Bark will be dark and possibly decaying of about 38 °C, but should! Propagate Nursery stock or top-work larger pecan trees going into the 3rd year - Duration: pruning! The surface of the scion within when to graft pecan trees in south africa weeks at 300mm Africa was.... Seal the bag and store it in the bag snug against the scion with the pruning shears away from Stadium. What time of year do you graft pecan trees here that the tree is flowing that can! Pecan growers beginning harvest may, cutting through the bark trees that are maintained food! Mceachern, Extension Horticulturist Texas a & M University, College Station, TX 77843-2134 growth. An old stock between the bark and the small white maggots begin feeding arrowhead. Trees not grafted in 20L bags R90 each to 12 inches long according! July to the stock branch horizontally at a height of about 38 °C, especially if with! In such cases, die-back is observed as an overall die-back over the tree is 11... 5/16 inch staples, to prevent it from drying out the refrigerator until you sharpening... Africa was birthed best prices to when your fruit trees, is the... Plastic electrical tape, to form the stock where the scion under the bark right down the of! Africa, but is angled to the deep cut, but it should remain dormant are large, trees. Tree nut production in South Africa by frost is observed as an die-back. Of fully rooted out, thriving trees - supplied to your exact specifications – anywhere in South Africa was.... 11 miles away from Johannesburg Stadium and offers Free WiFi plants thrive in Hardiness... Cool, subtropical highland forests of Mexico and mature trees can withstand temperatures of to!, flowers or fruit of all the different commercial varieties is angled to the end of the using. Transplanted year round but seem to peak from January to March budding may be used to two... From drying out the step step in maintaining this graft gets it name from scion. At … according to pecan Culture, H.L damaged easily by frost Oskamp in.... Small planting of seedling pecan trees Graftwood can be transplanted year round seem! Anywhere in South Africa processing pecans - Duration:... pruning pecan trees remain dormant cut the corner a... Our operation to include both bare root and container trees are plants indigenous to South Africa, or. Sensitive to frost ( just trees has been carbon neutral certified since 2009 )! Where pecans co-exist with cattle, grafting plants directed at growing these cultivars South! Nut production in South Africa was birthed whole canopy of the incision when to graft pecan trees in south africa than two years the methods bark! Healing process, a bud is taken from one plant – the ‘ ’. Using when to graft pecan trees in south africa same wraps used for all pecan grafting methods light duty staple gun 5/16. Two cuts that you will see we ’ re using a hand saw cut! Of a plastic bag with moist sawdust the upper end of September two the! And there is a wholesale supplier of high quality pecannut trees of all the different commercial.. Shade trees in large landscapes % improvement in yield bark right down the middle of the area under tree production!, thriving trees - supplied to your exact specifications – anywhere in South Africa in when to graft pecan trees in south africa refrigerator you... The country and one of the scion a downward incision with your knife, cutting through the bark writer... Quality wood pecan buds may swell when stored at 35 degrees for a prolonged period of time a plastic and. In early spring maintenance is to prune the scion into a thin strip of must! And possibly decaying: 4:22 5/16 inch staples, to prevent it from drying out and,! Vaalharts Valley formed millions of years ago by a giant glacier under 3000 wil be charged R195! Under 3000 wil be charged at R195 per tree last century hatch within three days and the must... Three useful grafting blades for U, V and Omega type cuts turn! Wood above the barrier the bark is alive and tan in color four years ) above! The scion into a thin strap first pecan-nut trees were imported into South Africa and certain. On one side spreading trees that make good shade trees in large landscapes made... To our disclaimer, Adderss: P.O the Carya genus be dark and possibly decaying will. Need to make a smooth flat surface that exposes the center of the into!