Outline three factors that aided the development of the peasantry. This period is from 1900 to present. Chiefs’ spirits, especially powerful, sometimes resided in anthropomorphic wooden figures. Many people, however, have a Creole language as their native tongue. First as colonies, again as plantation settlements, they were forcibly modified to satisfy the strategic, political, and economic aims of the mother countries. Meanwhile African slave importations climbed sharply. Heavily capitalized modern plantations using free wage labor and intensive scientific agriculture differed qualitatively from their forerunners and signified the genuine proletarianization of many Caribbean populations (Mintz 1953a; 1953b). Mona (Jamaica): University College of the West Indies. Most outstanding research on these subjects has been done by British-trained social anthropologists; some critics feel the importance of kinship, domestic organization, and mating forms may have been overstressed in Caribbean research. Social distinctions between chiefs and “commoners” were reflected in behavior and material culture (ritual deference, chiefly endogamy, and gold-inlaid chiefs’ chairs), and a bottommost serflike group (naborias) also existed. In general, then, women’s and gender history in the English-speaking Caribbean has shared the concerns and forms of social scientific and ‘structural’ historiography. To put naturalization into historical perspective, in 1890 and 1900 over 50 percent of the country's foreign-born residents were citizens. Subjugated Indians were used for mining, agriculture, and domestic labor, and Indian women were taken as concubines and occasionally as wives by the Spaniards. Organisations involved in improving living conditions: trade unions; governments (policies); women’s organisations; United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) The bottommost segments, whose members are usually predominantly of non-European origin, are typified culturally by consensual unions and (often) matrifocal domestic organization, membership in folk religions or cult groups, and the use of Creole languages or nonstandard dialects of Indo-European languages. Between 1630 and 1648 they also laid claim to Saba and St. Eustatius, the latter island becoming a major center of non-Spanish trade. But the lengthy colonial experience of the area early gave rise to new varieties of political thought and action. British and Dutch slave systems provided rather less protection to slaves. Mainly confined to upland interiors by continued plantation activity on fertile coastal plains, yeomen engaged in mixed farming to produce subsistence, local exchange items, and exports. Slavery itself, which began to excite opposition near the end of the eighteenth century, ended in the British colonies in 1838, in the French islands in 1848, and in the Dutch islands in 1863; thereafter, only the Hispanic islands had slavery. Where behavioral differences in forms of mating and domestic organization, religious persuasion and practice, language or dialect, and values express the presence of different institutional subsystems within a single Caribbean society, some analysts have labeled the society “plural” (M. G. Smith 1955), suggesting societal similarities with such Old World societies as Malaya, Fiji, or Mauritius. Many buccaneers were Frenchmen (often religious and political dissenters) who occupied northwestern Hispaniola about 1620, and later, when harassed by the Spaniards, moved off the north coast to lie de la Tortue. Since then, another 13 former British colonies in the anglophone Caribbean, culminating with St Kitts and Nevis in 1983, have joined the ranks of independent states. Mintz, Sidney W. 1953b The Folk-Urban Continuum and the Rural Proletarian Community. Caribbean Studies Caribbean society and culture 1. Ethnic and racial succession, fostered particularly by the plantation system, has produced some societies whose ethnic groupings are also largely distinct physically and whose behaviors may differ along ethnic, as well as class, lines. Simpson, George E. 1962b The Peoples and Cultures of the Caribbean Area. Throughout the Caribbean area magic has some importance, perhaps particularly among lower-class persons and connected especially with agriculture, fishing, and life crises. Smith, Raymond T. 1956 The Negro Family in British Guiana: Family Structure and Social Status in the Villages. However, as with all Caribbean folk religions, significant changes in form and meaning have occurred. Urbana: Univ. A lexically French creole is spoken in Haiti, the French Antilles, and several former French islands (e.g., Dominica, St. Lucia); the Dutch Leeward Islands use Papiamento, a creole having Spanish, Portuguese, and English elements but syntactically similar to none of them. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. In Puerto Rico, the lower-class movement toward fundamentalist sects is a special aspect of the Americanization process. 8 In the hierarchically-structured world view of the leaders of American society, the 5Lester D. Langley, Struggle for the American Mediterranean. The Spanish Conquest transformed Caribbean aboriginal life. Though land hunger has played a certain part in political struggles (as in Jamaica’s Morant Bay “rebellion” of 1865), and though slavery underlay much basically political disturbance (as in the Haitian revolution, the maroon “wars” of Jamaica, and many lesser conflicts), most political activity has originated in the colonial relationship itself. Specific focus is on skills development and research guidance to develop students' interest and ability. Under the impact of North American power and with the advent of land-and-factory combines, more recent intraregional movements have occurred. Created by. 57−64. The worst thing about malaria, yaws and hookworm was that they led to weakness which could last for life. Taylor, Douglas 1950 The Meaning of Dietary and Occupational Restrictions Among the Island Carib. Comparative data suggesting corporateness and patrilaterality cannot be reviewed here; where they occur, land or ritual or both are important (Clarke 1957; Davenport 1961; M. G. Smith 1962). As the plantations declined, squatter cultivators rapidly increased in the Puerto Rican, Cuban, Jamaican, and Hispaniolan interiors. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. "Caribbean Society Madrid: Helénica. Identification. Munro, Dana G. 1964 Intervention and Dollar Diplomacy in the Caribbean: 1900−1921. Montserrat Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. ." Available for free downloading from the OSPDH website (http://www.ub.edu/ospdh) Type 3 plantations were launched in Jamaica by Britain after 1655, in Martinique and Guadeloupe at about the same time by the French, and in French Saint-Domingue after 1697. Teachers are advised to plan their lessons around the Core, but each of its topics should be Thus the plantation system did not completely preclude either cultural continuity with the past or the growth of intermediate social segments within island societies, though the development of distinct subcultures had to take place in the interstices of tightly controlled social orders. The preceding sections demonstrate the social polarity of many Caribbean peoples in terms of several spheres of belief and behavior. The colonial past is always present in Caribbean societies. Political leadership often has a strong personal cast, the leader’s own views sometimes taking the place of a formal platform. International Migration, Integration and Social Cohesion in Europe In the 1900’s societies in the Caribbean began to change because education and also marriages. Gravity. As refuge areas for military deserters, the shipwrecked, and escaped slaves, the Hispanic island interiors facilitated such syntheses. The couvade was practiced to protect the health of parents and the newborn (Taylor 1949; 1950). International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. After 1520, the Hispano-Caribbean population fell because of migrations to the mainland. Cultivation involved no plows, little rotation, terracing, or manuring, and no clean tillage. Race, class and gender hierarchies of colonial domination have left a legacy of exclusion of the poor. Br.) ." Chapel Hill: Univ. Oviedo Y ValdÉs, Gonzalo FernÁndez de (1526) 1959 Natural History of the West Indies. If you are having trouble figuring it out, answer the questions When? Native and probably uncultivated were fruit trees such as the mammee (Mammea americana L.), jagua (Genipa americana L.), and icaco (Chrysobalanus icaco L.). The following data on mating and kinship, religion, and language illustrate some of these complexities. The United States pioneered this modern capitalist variant, especially in Cuba and Puerto Rico; comparable developments occurred in the British and French islands. From 1492 until about 1800, island history was written chiefly in terms of the struggles of European imperial powers. In the twentieth century Protestant missionaries converted numerous middle-class Catholics in the Hispanic Caribbean. Hence the early decades of the seventeenth century marked the irreversible penetration of north European political and military power into the Caribbean (Newton 1933). Each group, owners and owned, could bring only incomplete and imperfect renderings of its ancestral culture to the islands. Simpson, George E. 1962a Social Stratification in the Caribbean. The buccaneers maintained a martial, predatory, and largely womanless form of society by constant recruitment of anti-Spanish volunteers; attacked by the Spaniards, they turned sailors, using small, fast barks to attack Spanish ports and shipping. Translated and edited by Sterling A. Stoudemire. Oviedo y ValdÉs, Gonzalo FernÁndez de(1535−1557) 1959 Historia general y natural de las Indias. Free Africans were also imported—over 13,000 to British Guiana and many to Trinidad and elsewhere; even a few Annamese reached the French islands. New Haven: Yale Univ., Department of Anthropology. Unemployment was one of the major problems in the Caribbean. 6See Healy, U.S. Expansionism; Foster R. Dulles, The Imperial Years. These faiths employ self-denial, public testimony, and ritual abstention, and their services are marked by trance, possession, and glossolalia. of North Carolina Press. Languages of the Caribbean include dialectal variants of familiar Indo-European tongues, especially Spanish, French, English, and Dutch; intra-insular differences associated with class or regional divisions are common. The proportion dropped below that in 1910 and 1920, in association with the large-scale immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe; it then climbed to over 70 percent in Psychologically oriented studies in the islands often stress the weakness of familial bases of social affiliation as explanatory for the finding that personality disturbance is common and serious. 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